US DOJ and the English Language
31.08.2010 14:39 in news
Investigating Terrorism and Criminal Extremism
Terms and Concepts
Bureau of Justice Assistance
U.S. Department of Justice
This project was supported by Grant No. 2007-NC-BX-K002 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Office for Victims of Crime. Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the author and do not represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
Copyright 2005-2009 Institute for Intergovernmental Research®. All rights reserved. For additional information, please contact IIR at Post Office Box 12729, Tallahassee, FL 32317, (850) 385-0600, or www.slatt.org. Law Enforcement Sensitive.
In order for criminal justice professionals to effectively combat terrorism/extremism, it is imperative to obtain as much information as possible. Extremist groups often develop languages of their own. Some have created terms that are unique in the English language, while others have given new or expanded meaning to relatively common words and phrases. In addition, certain symbols, events, organizations, and individuals have particular significance for members of some extremist organizations, none of which may be familiar to an investigator or prosecutor who has not previously been involved with such cases.
Investigating Terrorism and Criminal Extremism-Terms and Concepts is a glossary designed primarily as a tool for criminal justice professionals to enhance their understanding of words relating to extremist terminology, phrases, activities, symbols, organizations, and selected names that they may encounter while conducting criminal investigations or prosecutions of members of extremist organizations. Included are terms that may be germane to members of an extremist movement. Also defined are words that are singularly employed by specific extremist groups. Legal terms that have been given new meanings by groups' adherents are also defined. Similarly, certain terms that describe activities and tactics commonly undertaken by extremists are also included. Significant groups, organizations, movements, and publications that are important for an understanding of terrorism/extremism in the United States and that may be encountered by law enforcement officers and prosecutors are also documented. Inasmuch as this publication is primarily intended to define terms, individuals indexed by name are limited in occurrence. However, there are some people who are of such importance to certain segments of the extremist movement that their very names are equated with that cause. Therefore, some of the better-known terrorists are included.
The key criterion for inclusion of a term, phrase, or name in this publication is the likelihood that investigators and prosecutors may encounter it during the scope of their duties. The fact that an entry appears in this publication does not imply a connection to illegal activity. As an example, the location Waco, Texas, appears in the glossary. Investigators may hear reference to this location while working on certain antigovernment cases. Many terms and names appear under one or more individual entries. For this reason, a concerted effort was made to create a thorough index, allowing for a comprehensive search of terms of interest.
This publication was initially prepared by Mark Pitcavage, Ph.D., in 1998, as a Guide to Common Terms Used by Antigovernment Extremists. Subsequent revisions were expanded to include many terms used by left-wing and international terrorists and special- interest/single-issue extremists. The following individuals have contributed to this Guide: Pete Haskel, Ted Burton, Ralph Brock, Ed Higgins, Suzanne James, Chris Walker, Christine Nordstrom, Walter Wallmark, Bonnie Bergey, Darren Mulloy, Gregory Rosen, Patricia Henshall, George Richards, Michael Reynolds, Brad Whitsel, Ed King, Jerry Kling, Jon Drummond, Jack Plaxe, Richard Holden, Jonathan White, Richard Marquise, David Carter, Charles Tilby, Gary Clyman, Robert Harris, and William Dyson, Jr. Terrorism and the extremist movement are dynamic and continually changing. Consequently, this publication is also in a state of continual revision. Suggestions for terms and names to be included in subsequent editions are welcomed and should be sent to SLATT, Post Office Box 12729, Tallahassee, FL 32317.
Abu Sayyaf Group: A violent Muslim separatist group operating in the southern Philippines that engages in kidnappings, assassinations, and bombings. There are no known United States ties, but they have been self-financing through kidnappings and extortion.
Admiralty Court: A term used by sovereign citizens to refer to most courts, which they believe have no jurisdiction over them.
Affinity Group: A small band of individuals who work clandestinely as a team to perpetrate direct attacks on a targeted enemy.
Agri-Terrorism: Attacks on agriculture, defined as the cultivation of land and raising of crops and livestock.
Al Gama`a Islamiyya (Islamic Group) (IG): Egypt's largest militant group, which has existed since the late 1970s. Its spiritual leader, Sheik al Rahman, is in jail in the United States for his involvement in the first World Trade Center (WTC) attack in 1993. Members of the group have committed a number of armed attacks against Egyptian security and other officials, including the 1997 attack at Luxor that killed 58 foreigners. They also attempted to assassinate President Mubarak of Egypt in 1995. They have never attacked a U.S. citizen or facility, but they have threatened U.S. interests. Most of their activities have taken place within Egypt, but they have a following throughout the Middle East and Europe.
Al Qaeda (Al Qa`ida): Founded in 1989, al Qaeda is an Islamic extremist anti-American organization that grew from the Soviet War in Afghanistan (1979-1989). Its primary architects were Usama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri.
Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade: Fatah-affiliated terrorists who emerged at the outset of the current intifada in Israel. Their goal is to establish a Palestinian state, and they have committed a number of terrorist attacks, including suicide bombings. They have operated only within Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza.
Allodial Title: A form of property title originating in the early Middle Ages in some lands of the former Roman Empire during the transition from Roman to feudal law, indicating title held by ancient right, without any obligations to the lord or king. Members of the "patriot" movement often file an "allodial title" of their own in an attempt to make their property immune from seizure for nonpayment of taxes or execution of judgments. The rationale is that a land held "in allodial title" can never be taken away.
American Liberty Currency (ALC): An alternative currency promoted by NORFED. Ostensibly, each $10 in ALC currency is essentially a certificate of ownership of 1 ounce of silver held in a NORFED vault.
American Pistol and Rifle Association (APRA): Formerly the most extreme of the various progun organizations in the country, with some chapters essentially constituting militia groups; it has since merged with the Gun Owners of America.
American's Bulletin, The: A magazine edited and published by Robert Kelly for sovereign citizens and tax protesters. Its articles discuss common law jurisdiction, common law liens, the income tax system, and similar subjects.
Ammonium Nitrate-Fuel Oil (ANFO): An explosive derived from mixing a solution of ammonium nitrate with fuel oil. ANFO bombs have been used in several of the nation's most notorious terrorist attacks.
Anarchist Cookbook, The: Written by William Powell during the late 1960s, this book covers a wide range of subjects of interest to extremists, with detailed information on constructing bombs, committing sabotage, making booby traps, conducting surveillance, tapping telephones, and making drugs.
Anarchist Punks: Disaffected youth, largely kids living on the streets, who have found that the anarchist movement provides them self-worth, belonging, and purpose. Punks became a significant force during the latter parts of 1999 in large protests where a Black Bloc was present. Much of the property damage and violence could be attributed to Anarchist Punks who had traveled from around the country to participate in the protest. Often, they are also drawn to "Mutant Fests," which are gatherings of punks and anarchists.
Anarchy: Belief in the absence of any form of governmental regulation or political authority and in the premise that a person is a citizen unto himself, not accountable to others.
Animal Liberation Brigade: A group that has claimed credit for two pipe bombings in northern California businesses affiliated with Huntingdon Life Sciences (Chiron Corporation and Shaklee Corporation) in August and September of 2003. This action was a significant upward departure from the traditional arson tactic to explosives. The communiqués also modified an ALF philosophy against harming all life, animal or human. The Animal Liberation Brigade's modification stated that it would "make every effort to minimize nontarget casualties, be they human or animal." Thus, along with clearly targeting human beings, they will attempt to minimize "collateral damage."
Animal Liberation Front (ALF): A clandestine animal rights extremist group that has claimed credit for hundreds of attacks perpetrated under the guise of protecting animals.
Animal Rights Militia (ARM): A violent, clandestine animal rights extremist group that started in England in the mid-1980s and soon expanded into Canada and the United States. In California, ARM claimed credit for two arsons in 1987, each resulting in damages in excess of $100,000. The group has been involved in several food poisoning hoaxes that have proven quite costly to the candy and turkey industries in Canada and England. ARM also became quite active in Sweden during the late 1990s.
Ansar al-Islam: Radical Islamist group attempting to establish a fundamentalist state in Iraq. It is closely allied with al Qaeda and has engaged in coalition attacks within Iraq. They were closely aligned with Abu Musa al Zarqawi and have claimed to have produced chemical weapons. They have no known strength in the United States, but they do have support from other international jihadists.
Anthrax (Bacillus Anthracis): An often fatal and highly infectious bacterial pathogen that occurs naturally in organic materials, including soil and diseased cattle and sheep, but that can also be grown. Anthrax is a potential form of biological terrorist attack agent.
Antiabortion Movement: A very large movement dedicated to stopping the practice of abortion, which remains one of the foremost political issues in the United States. Extremists have assassinated abortion physicians and their employees in the United States.
Antiauthoritarian: A political position in opposition to capitalism and government control, corporation or group, and supportive of decentralization and autonomy; generally, a libertarian position that is sometimes equated with anarchy.
Anti-Defamation League (ADL): A Jewish organization founded in 1913, devoted to fighting hate crimes. Its mission is "to stop the defamation of the Jewish people and to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike." The ADL is one of the largest (and most aggressive) groups opposing right-wing extremism.
Antipatriarchy: A movement within the anarchist movement that is in opposition to the dominance of men at the expense of womyn (the common spelling of women in antipatriarchy circles).
Anti-Shyster: A magazine published in Texas by Alfred Adask, an advocate of the sovereign citizen ideology. The ire of the magazine is directed largely at the legal/judicial system.
April 19: The day the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, was bombed by antigovernment extremists in 1995, two years to the day after the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, was burned to the ground in 1993; also the day that white supremacist Richard Wayne Snell was put to death by Arkansas authorities for murdering a black Arkansas state trooper, Lewis Bryant. The date of April 19 holds special historical significance for those in the militia/antigovernment movements. They believe significant events in history relating to the United States have taken place on April 19, dating back to the first shots being fired in the American Revolution on April 19, 1775, at Lexington, Massachusetts, and including the start of the Civil War in 1861, the removal of U.S. currency from the Gold Standard in 1933, the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961, and the Waco incident in 1993.
Armed Islamic Group (GIA): The GIA aims to overthrow the secular government in Algeria and replace it with an Islamic state. They have committed frequent attacks against both civilians and government workers. They have used assassinations and bombings and were involved in the hijacking of an Air France flight to Algiers in 1994, which was destined to be crashed into the center of Paris. Most of their operations have been in Algeria and Europe. They have no United States connection.
Army of God: A group of three men who kidnapped abortion doctor Hector Zevallos and his wife in Edwardsville, Illinois, first used this name in 1982. Various antiabortion extremists who have perpetrated violent actions against abortion clinics and their employees have used the name. A manual entitled "Army of God" outlines how antiabortion extremists can use explosives and other destructive means to close abortion facilities.
Article III Judge: Literally, a federal judge as defined in the Constitution: "The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." "Patriots" often claim that some or all judges are not legitimate Article III judges and thus may not preside over cases.
Aryan: A term loosely used by white supremacists to refer to Caucasians of European descent, found in such terms as "Aryan World Congress," "Aryan Nations," and "Aryan Brotherhood." Its popularity among white supremacists is presumably due to Nazi ideology, which claimed that the "Aryan race" was the "master race."
Aryan Brotherhood: A widespread white-supremacist prison gang, not to be confused with the Aryan Nations. In its activities, it resembles organized crime more than it does a hate group or extremist group.
Aryan Nations (AN): Aryan Nations is probably the best- known neo-Nazi group in the United States in recent times. Established in the 1970s by former engineer Richard G. Butler, the AN also incorporated into itself a religious entity, the Church of Jesus Christ Christian. As pastor, Butler soon became one of the most prominent Christian Identity ministers in the country.
Asbat al-Ansar: This Sunni extremist group has attempted to overthrow the government of Lebanon. They have utilized car bombings, and most of their activities have taken place in southern Lebanon. They have no known United States connection.
Asseveration: The process of revoking all ties and "contracts" with the federal government. Sovereign citizens claim that if they sever all ties with the government, including social security numbers, zip codes, income taxes, and so forth, they can become sovereign citizens no longer under the jurisdiction of federal or state governments, but subject only to common law.
Aum Shinri Kyo (Aum Supreme Truth Cult): This cult, established in Japan in 1987, conducted the March 1995 sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system, which killed 12 and injured 6,000. Their principal membership is located only in Japan, but several hundred members have surfaced in Russia.
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA): This Basque separatist group has attempted to establish an independent homeland for the Basque people for over 40 years. Approximately 700 ETA members are in jails in both France and Spain. They have committed a number of terrorist attacks against Spanish government security and military forces, as well as politicians and judicial figures. They have killed over 850 people since beginning their attacks in the early 1960s. They finance their activities through armed robberies. They were initially suspected by the Spanish government for the Madrid train bombings in March 2004. They are not known to operate outside of France and Spain.
Biblical Money: Gold and silver. Many members of the "patriot" movement believe that the Bible mandates that the only lawful money consists of gold and silver coins.
Big Book of Mischief: Distributed by Chaos Industries, this 1991 publication depicts terrorist techniques and methods used to achieve political and social-issue goals. The publication explains in great detail how explosives can be made and deployed.
Bilderbergers (Bilderberg Group): Along with the Trilateral Commission and the Council on Foreign Relations, one of the three groups targeted by right-wing extremists for conspiring to dominate the world.
Black Bloc: A Black Bloc is a tactic through which a collection of anarchists work together in connection with a particular protest demonstration. The main goal of the Black Bloc is to provide solidarity in opposition to the repressive government forces during a specific event. It is not a formal organization or a continuing entity.
Black Helicopters: Unmarked dark helicopters allegedly observed by many members of the "patriot" movement, who claim that the helicopters are part of some vast conspiracy, perhaps involving the United Nations or the "New World Order." Various explanations have been offered for some of the sightings, but the term has since entered the popular vocabulary and is often used as a generic, sometimes satirical reference to conspiracy-related beliefs.
Bogus Churches: Illegitimate churches used largely to evade laws. Dating from the heyday of the Posse Comitatus, a frequent tactic of right-wing extremists has been to create "churches" in order to escape scrutiny or, most frequently, to avoid paying taxes.
Bogus Lien: An invalid lien filed on public officials or other persons or entities (banks, lawyers, neighbors) by sovereign citizens. The bogus lien was one of the most often-used weapons of paper terrorists in the 1990s.
Bogus Money Order: Fraudulent financial instruments frequently used in the mid-1990s by members of the "patriot" movement.
Bonehead: A term used by nonracist skinheads to refer to racist skinheads.
Boot Party: A type of skinhead assault in which a group of skinheads gang up to attack a victim. Often this involves kicking a prostrate victim with steel-toed boots, thus the origin of the term.
Bruder Schweigen: A fractured German term for "The Silent Brotherhood" (also known as The Order); a group of approximately two dozen white supremacists that, in the early to mid-1980s, became possibly the most infamous criminal extremist group in U.S. history.
Butyric Acid: A chemical used by antiabortion extremists to shut down abortion clinics, by anticapitalist anarchists to shut down businesses, and by antifur activists to shut down fur retailers. The acid is highly noxious and is so penetrating that it can render a building uninhabitable, necessitating costly and time-consuming repairs.
Cells: Small, unnamed groups of extremists who conspire to commit and do actually commit violent attacks.
Christian Identity: A hate-filled religious sect descended from British-Israelism that has come to dominate much of the leadership of the extreme right in the United States today. The key belief of Identity adherents is that people of white European descent are actually the descendants of the ancient Israelites of the Bible. Therefore, the Bible is a message written expressly for whites, who are "God's chosen people."
Christian Patriots: A term used, especially in the 1970s and 1980s, to describe people sympathetic to right-wing ideology.
Christian Reconstructionism: A theology common among many in the "patriot" movement. It essentially argues that biblical law should be the basis for reconstructing earthly societies-in other words, it espouses an essentially theocratic government.
Citizen's Arrest Warrant: A document issued by common law courts or individual sovereign citizens that purports to be an arrest warrant for public officials who have allegedly violated their oath of office or the Constitution in some way. These documents are "served" in a number of ways-even legitimate sheriffs in a few counties have actually served them, through various rationalizations-but one major concern regarding them is the fear that sovereign citizens may actually attempt to kidnap ("arrest") a public official because of these documents. 17
Citizens Grand Jury: The forerunner in the 1970s and early 1980s to the common law court of the 1990s. Posse Comitatus writings advocated that citizens form their own grand juries to hear cases and ensure that public officials were following the law in the proper way-not following "illegitimate" laws.
Citizens Militia: A type of paramilitary group often started to "protect" the citizenry from a tyrannical federal government. See also Unorganized Militia.
Civil Rights Task Force (CRTF): A "patriot" group headquartered in California (with members in many states) that primarily impersonates law enforcement. CRTF sells nylon jackets (with "Civil Rights Task Force" printed on the back, just as law enforcement agencies have jackets with their names on the back), gold badges, business cards, and other paraphernalia.
Claiming Skin: To become a skinhead.
Collection (of Information): The identification, location, and recording/storage of unanalyzed information, typically from an original source and using both human and technological means, for input into the intelligence cycle to determine its usefulness in meeting a defined tactical or strategic intelligence goal.
Commercial Affidavit Process: A common law/sovereign citizen tactic in which an extremist "swears out" an affidavit of truth alleging certain matters. Such affidavits are then sent to the "accused" along with a demand for redress, as well as a statement that if the affidavits are not challenged within 30 days, then they are presumed to be true. Essentially, this is a framework used to place bogus liens or similar items of "paper terrorism."
Common Law Court: A fictitious court established by sovereign citizens. Sovereign citizens claim that these courts are the proper courts to hear any matters relating to people who have declared themselves sovereign citizens (they claim that the real court system has no jurisdiction over them).
Common Law Court/Sovereign Citizen Movement: A movement (descended from the Posse Comitatus) which claims that the true and legitimate (de jure) government of the United States (and state governments) has been replaced by a tyrannical, illegitimate (de facto) government. Members of the movement claim they are only subject to a form of law they refer to as "common law" and are not subject to the authority of the federal or state governments. Adherents refer to themselves by a variety of names, most often "sovereign citizens," but also "state citizens," "sovereigns," and other terms.
Communiqué: A political statement issued by a terrorist group to claim credit for a specific attack.
Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (NPA): This Maoist group formed in 1969 with the aim of overthrowing the government of the Philippines. They have targeted Filipino security forces, politicians, judges, and informants. They oppose U.S. military presence in the Philippines. They killed several U.S. service personnel before the United States base closures in 1992. The NPA is not known to operate outside of the Philippines.
Compound Group: A type of extremist group that tends to be reclusive, cultlike, and semicommunal. Compound groups typically live in isolated areas and tend to be survivalist in nature. Many have apocalyptic views-they foresee some 19 sort of coming collapse that they intend to survive. Compound groups tend to be heavily armed. Despite their reclusiveness, they often act as a haven or safe house for people of like minds, including fugitives from the law.
Computer Virus: A program that is written to perform a desired function but has a hidden code introduced into the command sequence which, when triggered, performs an unwanted or destructive function. The virus "infects" the computer by spreading through its memory and/or operating system and can "infect" other computers if introduced through shared data media or via a communications medium.
Concentration Camps: Detention camps supposedly being built or already built by the United States government, according to conspiracy theorists.
Constitution Party: A minor, right-wing extremist political party, formerly known as the U.S. Taxpayers Party (USTP), which is one of the primary parties that specifically try to appeal to the "patriot" movement.
Constitution Rangers: A multistate extremist group that views its members as "constitutional policemen" who police government officials. Active primarily in western states, including Arizona, Utah, Idaho, and Washington, members frequently wear badges and claim law enforcement authority. In June 1997, members delivered a letter to Congress demanding the establishment of a separate court system and recognition of the police powers of the Rangers. The group ostensibly started in 1977 in Arizona. It claims to have around a thousand members, although this number is almost certainly highly inflated.
Constitutional Money: Gold or silver. Ignoring judicial interpretations of the Constitution and federal law, many antigovernment extremists claim that gold and silver are the only constitutional forms of money in the United States.
Constitutionalists: A generic term for members of the "patriot" movement. It is now often used to refer to members of the sovereign citizen or common law court movement. Sometimes the word "constitutionist" is also used.
Constructive Treason: Treason committed by a person through his conduct or actions, even though such actions individually do not amount to actual treason. This is a doctrine not recognized by the United States, though some other countries do so. However, members of the "patriot" movement routinely, in their common law courts and elsewhere, charge public officials at the local, state, and federal levels with "constructive treason" for taking actions that the "patriots" do not like.
Convergence Center: A term referring to the headquarters of anarchist and antiauthoritarian protest actions. The convergence center serves as a gathering place for affinity groups, as well as a central operations location for the coordination of protest tactics, information, and planning.
Corporate States (Corporate United States): One segment of the "patriot" movement believes that some or most levels of government (town, state, or federal) are actually not legitimate governments but corporations.
Corporation Soles: A type of corporation allowed in some states to hold religious property or the property of scientific research institutions without expectation of gain or profit. 21 Certain tax protesters and other unscrupulous individuals have argued that corporation soles, or "corp soles," can be created in such a way as to allow individuals to escape paying taxes. These people market kits to help people form corporation soles, often charging thousands of dollars. The tactic is also active in Canada.
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR): Along with the Bilderbergers and the Trilateral Commission, one of the three key groups that conspiracy theorists claim operate behind the scenes to control the world and to establish the "New World Order."
Counselor-at-Law: One of a number of terms used by self- styled legal advisors, usually members of the common law or sovereign citizen movement, who attempt to give legal advice to "patriots" in trouble with the law. Other terms used include "constitutional counsel" or just plain "legal counsel." Such individuals virtually never have any actual legal background. In most instances, the courts have refused to allow such individuals to serve as legal representation.
Counterintelligence: In the "patriot" context, spying on and keeping track of public officials and law enforcement officers. Such actions are very popular in the "patriot" movement, particularly among militia groups, who frequently have "intelligence officers" devoted to this sort of activity.
County Rule Movement: The County Rule Movement, a successor to the "Sagebrush Rebellion" of the 1980s, is a movement primarily among Westerners opposed to federal land-use policies.
Covenant Community: An alternative, self-governed community, in the context of the "patriot" movement, often called "Christian Covenant Communities." Such communities tend to be reclusive and survivalist in nature.
Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord, The: A Christian Identity compound group started in 1971 along the Arkansas-Missouri border by a former fundamentalist preacher named James Ellison. Survivalist and paramilitary in nature, this white-supremacist group preached preparedness in order to survive the coming apocalypse.
Cracker: A person who accesses a computer system without consent with the intent to steal, destroy information, disrupt the system, plant a virus, alter the system and/or its processes from the configuration managed by the system manager, or otherwise alter information in or processes of the system.
Dearresting: Dearresting, also known as unarresting, is a tactic in which protesters physically insert themselves between a detainee and custodial officer to extract the detainee from the physical custody of the officer. Once freed, group members will then link arms with one another and disappear into the crowd.
Deep Ecology: Deep ecology is an environmental movement initiated by a Norwegian philosopher, Arnie Naess, in 1972. Deep ecology is founded on two basic principles. The first principle is a scientific insight into the interrelatedness of all systems of life on earth, together with the idea that anthropocentrism (human-centeredness) is a misguided way of seeing things. Deep ecologists say that an ecocentric attitude is more consistent with the truth about the nature of life on earth. Instead of regarding humans as something completely unique or chosen by God, they see us as integral threads in the fabric of life. They believe we need to develop a less dominating and aggressive posture towards the earth if we and the planet are to survive. The second component of deep ecology is what Naess calls the need for human self-realization. Instead of identifying with our egos or our immediate families, we should learn to identify with trees, animals, and plants, indeed, the whole ecosphere.
Direct Action: A term often used by environmental and animal rights extremists as well as anarchists. The term refers to the tactic of attacking the properties of repressive capitalist ventures or those of individuals and entities that harm animals or the environment. Direct Action (Action Directe) was also the name of a leftist-oriented terrorist group that functioned in France during much of the 1980s.
Earth First: Founded in 1980 by a group of people that included Dave Foreman, Earth First sought to promote the concept of saving the environment. The founders believed technological advances and encroachment into wilderness areas were endangering the earth's environment. Today, many environmental activists are called "Earth Firsters," even though they may have never had an affiliation with the group of that name.
Earth Liberation Front (ELF): One of the most prolific clandestine terrorist groups functioning in the United States, this group has claimed credit for a number of attacks that have occurred in the United States since 1996, resulting in tens of millions of dollars in damages. Their targets have varied and initially were always aimed at something the group viewed as endangering the environment. However, ELF has worked jointly with ALF on several attacks.
Ecodefense: A Field Guide To Monkeywrenching: A 1987 manual, updated in 1993, written by Dave Foreman, one of the founders of Earth First. Ecodefense made Foreman something of a folk hero among environmental activists. The book provides instructions on methods to sabotage companies, farmers, and ranchers in order to save the environment.
Economic Sabotage: A term often employed by animal rights extremists and ecoextremists to mean a clandestine action carried out to cause financial loss to a victim, typically a business, university, or farmer.
Eco-Raiders: Considered by many to be the first organized group of clandestine environmental extremists to function in the United States. Organized in 1972 by high school students in Tucson, Arizona, the group targeted builders who were constructing homes in areas they believed should not be developed. Actions by the Eco-Raiders included moving survey stakes, sending threatening letters, and attacking construction trucks and equipment.
Ecoterror: A term often used by the media and law enforcement to describe the kind of violence perpetrated by environmental extremists. It is noted that many environmental criminal extremists do not acknowledge their activities as terrorism.
Eighty-Eight (also 88 or Eight-Eight): A number used by white supremacists that stands for "Heil Hitler" ("H" being the eighth letter of the alphabet). A frequently used variation on this theme is 14/88, which is a combination of Fourteen Words and Heil Hitler. Many white-supremacist vendors often specifically price their merchandise, such as compact discs, at $14.88. See also Fourteen Words.
Elohim City: A Christian Identity compound group started along the Oklahoma-Arkansas border by a former Mennonite named Robert Millar, who died in May 2001 and was succeeded by his son John. Since its establishment, it has acted as a central meeting ground and safe house for white supremacists and other antigovernment extremists.
Elves: A term for members of ELF who commit clandestine acts intended to save the environment.
Embassy of Heaven: A religious/antigovernment group in Oregon headed by "Paul Revere," the alias of a former computer analyst named Craig Douglas Fleshman. Fleshman started the Embassy of Heaven Church in 1987; it preaches a total separation from "earthly" government. Embassy members continue to make and sell the bogus license plates and other paraphernalia. Committed Embassy of Heaven adherents rarely ever show up for court dates and frequently go on hunger strikes when jailed.
Enemy Agents: Agents of foreign powers hostile to the United States. In "patriot" terminology, the term is often used to refer to public officials.
Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy (EMETIC): An early clandestine environmental extremist group named after an impeached Arizona governor. The group gained notoriety for attacking the Fairchild Snowbowl Ski Resort in northern Arizona in 1987 and 1988 and for toppling power poles leading into the Canyon uranium mine, also in Arizona, in 1988. The group was arrested in 1989 while they conspired to damage nuclear power plants.
Executive Orders: The formal means by which the President of the United States determines the conduct of business in the Executive Branch. Typically, such executive orders take two forms: (1) orders governing administrative or policy matters in Executive Branch agencies or (2) orders for which the authority is derived from congressional authorizations. The "patriot" movement, however, contends that executive orders are "presidential laws" that bypass Congress and subvert the Constitution.
Fag Bashing: The attacking of a homosexual person because of his sexual orientation. The term is often applied to skinhead attacks on gay people. Also called "gay bashing."
False 1099s: A retaliatory tactic used by right-wing extremists, usually against public officials. Typically, such use involves fraudulently filling out an IRS Form 1099, alleging having paid a public official a large sum of money.
Fatah: Founded in 1958 by Yasser Arafat, this group became the dominant group within the Palestine Liberation Organization. Subgroups within Fatah have included Tanzim, Force 17, the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, and Black September. Prior to Yasser Arafat's death, Fatah supplied the officials and enforcement officers for the Palestinian National Authority. With Arafat's death, Fatah's future is uncertain.
Fax Chain: A method of disseminating information in the "patriot" movement through the use of fax machines.
Federal Land Patent: A method by which "patriots" claim they can hold land free of taxes. Defining a land patent as "the first conveyance of title and ownership to the land which the United States government grants to a claimant," they note that the Homestead Act of 1862 stipulated that "No land acquired under this Act shall ... become liable to the satisfaction of any debt or debts contracted prior to the issuing of the patent." "Patriots" interpret this to mean that if they file a land patent, then their land cannot be taken for debts incurred prior to the filing of the land patent. There are many variations on this theme in "patriot" literature, but avoidance of taxes and liability 29 for just debts is the ultimate end. Courts routinely reject this argument. See also Allodial Title.
Field Intelligence Group (FIG): The centralized intelligence component in an FBI field office that is responsible for the management, execution, and coordination of intelligence functions within the field office region.
Final Nail: A series of publications (Final Nail 1, a supplement, and Final Nail 2) issued by ALF, designed to provide information on the group's program to destroy the fur industry through attacks on fur farms and fur distributors. The Final Nail Web site has been commonly used by ALF to claim credit for numerous criminal actions.
Flag of Distress: The upside-down American flag often prominently displayed on "patriot" literature, Web sites, uniforms, or elsewhere. Federal law states that "the flag should never be displayed with the union down save as a signal of dire distress." Many "patriots" state that the country is in dire distress because of an illegitimate or tyrannical government; therefore, they use the symbol of the upside-down flag as a protest. Interestingly, groups ideologically far removed from the "patriot" movement, such as Earth First, have also used the distress flag symbol.
Flag of Peace: The American flag preferred by the "patriot" movement; a red, white, and blue flag without any gold trim, braid, balls, tassels, eagles, fringe, or spear on the flag or pole. Patriots believe that any other American flag is a military flag that denotes military jurisdiction. Only under the "flag of peace" do U.S. citizens receive their constitutional rights and due process.
Fourteen Words: "We must secure the existence of our people and a future for White children," a doctrine espoused by The Silent Brotherhood member David Lane (sentenced to 190 years in prison for the murder of Alan Berg and other crimes).
Fourteenth Amendment Citizen: According to sovereign citizen ideology, a citizen subject to the jurisdiction of the federal and state governments. Sovereign citizens claim that they themselves are subject only to the common law. Adherents allege that the Fourteenth Amendment created a new class of citizens-citizens of the United States-where previously (unless one lived in Washington, DC, or a federal territory), one was only a citizen of one's state.
Fraudulent Deed Transfers: A tactic used by some extremist groups in which a document is filed that boldly asserts that a public official or other perceived enemy is transferring his or her property to some other person or entity (for example, an extremist's grandmother).
Free Speech: Free Speech is a monthly publication for supporters of American Dissident Voices, a radio program conducted by the National Alliance. Information on obtaining copies of the newsletter can be found on the Web site http:// www.natvan.com/free-speech. A sample copy (although outdated) is available to preview at http://www.natvan.com/free- speech/FS02-10.pdf.
Freemen: Generally, a term used to describe sovereign citizens. More specifically, it refers to the Montana Freemen, a group of extremists in eastern Montana who held an 81-day armed standoff with federal authorities.
Freshcut: Someone new to the skinhead movement.
Fringe on the Flag: Gold fringe that decorates the flags present in most courtrooms in the United States. Sovereign citizens claim (erroneously) that the only flags which can legally have such a fringe are military or admiralty flags, and thus a court in which such a flag is displayed does not have valid jurisdiction over them.
Frontline Information Service: This service, which claims to have originated in 1994, provides regular reports concerning animal rights issues worldwide, paying attention to clandestine actions carried out by ALF. It also reports actions carried out by environmental and anti-genetic research groups.
FSU (F**k Sh*t Up): An acronym used by anarchists as a coded instruction for activists to be prepared to engage in destructive actions during the course of a protest demonstration. "FSU" might be handwritten in small letters somewhere on a leaflet announcing a demonstration.
Genetically Altered Crops: One target of environmental terrorists who believe that any effort to alter the genes of a crop is wrong and potentially damaging to the environment. In their attacks against farmers' fields, laboratories, and universities, the extremists use a variety of terms to refer to their enemy, including "biotech," "genetically engineered (GE)," "genetically modified (GM)," "genetically modified organisms (GMO)," and "genetix."
GenetiX Alert: An independent news center that works with other overt organizations opposed to genetic engineering. Claiming it does not carry out any underground actions and does not advocate illegal acts, the center announces illegal actions taken against genetic engineering and provides an explanation of the reasons resulting in these actions.
Gentrification: A term used by anarchists and other leftist- oriented activists to refer to the deliberate or ad hoc urban renewal of a generally rundown neighborhood enabling wealthy, more affluent people to move there. Leftist activists side with the poor who are displaced by the change. They are particularly upset by signs of "decadence" that they feel accompany such changes, including the opening of Starbucks coffee shops, boutiques, and banking institutions.
Globalization: This term generally refers to the denationalization of economies, markets, products, and populations brought about by ever faster travel, improved communications, and advances in technology.
Gun Owners of America (GOA): An extremely radical gun- owning group with close ties to the militia movement. It reputedly has about 100,000 members (as opposed to the millions of NRA members). GOA is headed by Larry Pratt, a strong militia supporter who also has close ties to the white- supremacist movement.
Hacker: A person who has expertise and skills to penetrate computer systems and alter such systems, processes, and/ or information/data in files but does no damage or commits no theft or crime. While a hacker may enter files or systems without authorization, the action is more akin to a trespass, and no theft or damage results.
Hacktivism: A term used to describe the act of hacking into a computer to steal or disrupt the flow of information, commonly for political resistance purposes.
Hamas: Hamas was created in 1987 in the West Bank from the Muslim Brotherhood, a Palestinian nationalist movement that desires that the nation of Israel be eliminated and an independent Palestinian state be established.
Hammerskins/Hammerskin Nation: The dominant skinhead group in the United States. Hammerskins divide themselves by geographic regions; thus, there are Northern Hammerskins, Confederate Hammerskins, Eastern Hammerskins, and Western Hammerskins (as well as foreign variants, such as the Southern Cross Hammerskins in Australia). The symbol for the group consists of two hammers arranged in an X, often against a particular background (such as a Confederate flag for Confederate Hammerskins). In the United States, much of the white power music concert scene is dominated by Hammerskins. Hammerskins are violent, white-supremacist, and active in prison recruitment.
Harakat ul-Mujahidin: This Islamic militant group is based in Pakistan and has been linked to Usama bin Laden. They have conducted a number of operations against Indian troops and civilians in Kashmir. They have been involved in kidnappings, as well as airplane hijackings. Much of their financial backing has come from Saudi Arabia and other Gulf and Islamic states. They have also solicited donations from magazine ads and pamphlets. They have no known infrastructure in the United States.
Hezballah (Hezbollah, Hizballah, Party of God, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine): Hezballah is a Lebanese Shi`ite organization created in 1982 that is strongly aligned with Iran. Hezballah is zealously Islamic and seeks to rid the Middle East of Western influence. In addition, Hezballah is extremely hostile toward Israel, often targeting Israel for attacks.
Holocaust Revisionists: Anti-Semitic extremists who claim that the Holocaust never occurred and/or that the Nazis did not kill millions of Jews.
Homophobia: Fear and/or loathing of homosexuals.
Illuminati: An intellectual society and social club formed by a university professor, Adam Weishaupt (1748-1811), in southern Germany in the 1770s in the spirit of the Enlightenment. It was suppressed by Bavarian authorities in the 1780s. Weishaupt spent the rest of his life writing about the Illuminati. People who believe Illuminati conspiracy theories believe the society never died away but lived on, run by people intent on controlling the world through devious means.
Information: Pieces of raw, unanalyzed data that identify persons, evidence, or events or illustrate processes that indicate the incidence of a criminal event or witnesses or evidence of a criminal event.
Information Sharing System: An integrated and secure methodology, whether computerized or manual, designed to efficiently and effectively distribute critical information about offenders, crimes, and/or events in order to enhance prevention and apprehension activities by law enforcement.
Information Warfare: Synonymous with cyberwarfare, information warfare is the offensive and defensive use of information and information systems to deny, exploit, corrupt, or destroy an adversary's information, information-based processes, information systems, and computer-based networks while protecting one's own. Such actions are designed to achieve advantages over military or business adversaries.
Information/Intelligence Sharing: See National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan.
Intelligence (Criminal): The product of the analysis of raw information related to crimes or crime patterns to ascertain offenders and trends.
Intelligence Assessment: A comprehensive FBI Office of Intelligence SBU report on an intelligence issue related to criminal or national security threats within the service territory of an FBI field office and available to state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies. Distribution will be through LEO, RISSNETTM, JRIES, and the FBI Field Intelligence Groups.
Intelligence Bulletins: An FBI Office of Intelligence finished intelligence product in article format that describes new developments and evolving trends. The bulletins are typically SBU and available for distribution to state, local, and tribal law enforcement. Distribution will be through LEO, RISSNET, JRIES, and the FBI Field Intelligence Groups.
Intelligence Community: Those agencies of the United States government, including the military, that have the responsibility of preventing breeches to U.S. national security and responding to national security threats.
Intelligence Cycle: An organized process by which information is gathered, assessed, and distributed in order to fulfill the goals of the intelligence function-it is a method of performing analytic activities and placing the analysis in a useable form.
Intelligence Estimate: The appraisal, expressed in writing or orally, of available intelligence relating to a specific situation or condition with a view to determining the courses of action open to criminal offenders and terrorists and the order of probability of their adoption. This includes strategic projections on the economic, human, and/or quantitative criminal impact of the crime or issue that is subject to analysis.
Intelligence Function: That activity within a law enforcement agency responsible for some aspect of law enforcement intelligence, whether collection, analysis, or dissemination.
Intelligence Gap: An unanswered question about a cyber, criminal, or national security issue or threat.
Intelligence Information Reports (IIR): Raw, unevaluated intelligence concerning "perishable," or time-limited, information concerning criminal or national security issues in a report prepared by the FBI Office of Intelligence. While the full IIR may be classified, state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies will have access to SBU information in the report under the tear-line. Distribution will be through LEO, RISSNET, JRIES, and the FBI Field Intelligence Groups.
Intelligence Products: Reports or documents that contain assessments, forecasts, associations, links, and other outputs from the analytic process that may be disseminated for use by law enforcement agencies for prevention of crimes, target hardening, apprehension of offenders, and prosecution.
Intelligence Records (Files): Stored information on the activities and associations of individuals, organizations, businesses, and groups who are suspected of being or having been involved in the actual or attempted planning, organizing, financing, or commission of criminal acts or who are suspected of being or having been involved in criminal activities with known or suspected crime figures. (LEIU Guidelines, in Peterson, Morehouse, and Wright, 2001, p. 202)
Intelligence Records Guidelines: Derived from the federal regulation 28 CFR Part 23, these are guidelines/standards for the development of records management policies and procedures used by law enforcement agencies that have federally funded multijurisdictional criminal intelligence systems.
Intelligence-Led Policing: The dynamic use of intelligence to guide operational law enforcement activities to targets, commodities, or threats for both tactical responses and strategic decision making for resource allocation and/or strategic responses.
International Jewish Banking Conspiracy: A long-standing conspiracy theory that suggests that "international bankers" or "Jewish international bankers" essentially control the world by manipulating economies and governments from behind the scenes for their own benefit.
Islamic Jihad: The Palestine Islamic Jihad is committed to the creation of an Islamic Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel through holy war. It also opposes moderate Arab governments and has committed many attacks, including large-scale suicide bombings against Israeli civilian and military targets. It has not targeted U.S. interests and has confined its attacks to inside Israel and its territories. Most of its operations have been within Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza, but they do receive financial support from Iran, Syria, and sympathetic individuals.
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (Islamic Party of Turkestan): This coalition of Islamic militants from Uzbekistan is closely affiliated with al Qaeda. They participated in attacks on U.S. and coalition forces in Afghanistan and have engaged in a number of kidnappings in the region. Most other operatives are scattered throughout South Asia in the area around Afghanistan and Iran. They have received support from other Islamic extremist groups, but they have no known infrastructure in the United States.
Israel/Israelites: A term used by Christian Identity adherents to refer to themselves or, more broadly, to white people of European extraction. Christian Identity adherents claim that they are the descendants of the "lost tribes" of Israel, thus, the true Israelites described in the Bible. They simultaneously deprivilege Jews of that status by claiming that they are not Israelites but come from the Black Sea region.
Jack-Booted Thug (JBT): A law enforcement officer (especially federal) draped in combat fatigues or other military or paramilitary uniform, wearing a ski mask or similar headgear guaranteeing anonymity, wielding powerful military weapons, and utilizing other military vehicles and gear.
Jaish-e-Mohammed (Army of Mohammed): This Islamic extremist group is based in Pakistan, and their aim is to unite Kashmir with Pakistan. They have engaged in kidnappings and suicide attacks that have killed dozens of people. Pakistani authorities suspect that they may have been involved in attacks within Pakistan in 2002. They collect funds through donations, and their area of operation is in Pakistan. They did have training camps in Afghanistan, but they have no known connection to the United States.
Jemaah Islamiya (JI): This Southeast Asian-based terrorist network has links to al Qaeda and recruited and trained terrorists in the late 1990s with the goal of creating an Islamic state in Southeast Asia. They were responsible for the bombing of the JW Marriott Hotel in Jakarta in 2003 and the Bali bombings in October 2002. Several plots have been disrupted by authorities in that region, and a number of their leadership have been arrested. It is believed that they have cells that span all of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Pakistan. They receive financial support from other Middle-Eastern groups, including al Qaeda, but they have no known infrastructure in the United States.
Jihad (Jihaad): Striving for the faith as an extraordinary effort in the belief and practice of Islam; holy war (some think this is a mistaken translation) or militancy even with violence in the defense or in extending the interests of Islam.
Joint Regional Information Exchange System (JRIES): A subscriber-supported analytical and resource system for local, state, and federal law enforcement with an interface to the U.S. Department of Defense, which provides secure, SBU real- time information with databases, e-mail, media studies, threat reporting, analytic tools, and mapping and imagery tools.
Jubilee: A Christian Identity bimonthly newspaper published in Midpines, California, by Paul Hall II, who started it in 1988. Possibly the most well-known publication that caters to the white-supremacist movement, it is filled with racist material and cartoons.
Jural Society: A group similar to a common law court, though often with more explicitly religious overtones. According to the words of one California jural society, "The Jural Society is the ultimate civil authority of the county and wields the same power as the county board of supervisors, and much more."
Justice Department, The: A violent, clandestine animal rights organization that started in England in 1993 and soon moved into Canada and then to the United States. The group favors the tactic of sending threatening and intimidating mailings to people involved in handling live animals, including fur farmers and laboratory scientists.
Kahane Chai (Kach): This Jewish group's goal is to restore the biblical state of Israel through force. The founder of the group is the son of Meir Kahane, who was killed in New York City in 1990. The son, Benjamin, was himself killed in Israel in 2000 by Palestinian gunmen. Most of its activities have taken place in Israel and the West Bank, but it does receive support from sympathizers in the United States and Europe.
Kinsman: A term synonymous with "Klansman" or "white racialist."
Klan Symbology: Symbols used by members of the Ku Klux Klan to refer to the Klan. The Klan, from its various incarnations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as well as from its history as a "secret society," has developed a considerable body of arcane terminology (kleagle, klonvocation, klonsule, etc.), ritual, and symbology. Among its symbols are numerical symbols designed to identify the Klan or Klan members. One example is the numerical term "33/5." There are three "Ks" in Ku Klux Klan, while "K" is the eleventh letter of the alphabet; thus, "33" derives from 3 times 11. The "5" in the term refers to the "Fifth Era" of Klan history (Klan members often divide the history of the Klan into a number of different eras). A similar representation is "311."
Kongra-Gel (KGK) (Kurdistan Workers Party, PKK, KADEK): Founded in 1978, this Marxist-Leninist insurgent group was made up of Turkish Kurds. Their goal was to establish an independent Kurdish state in the Middle East, and they engaged in significant violence against the Turkish government. Primary targets have been Turkish government security forces. KGK was responsible for the deaths of thousands of Turks through the 1990s. They engaged in bombings and kidnappings, and several members were arrested in Istanbul in late 2003 in possession of explosive devices. Their chairman, Abdullah Ocalan, was sentenced to death, but his sentence has been commuted to life in prison. They primarily operate in Turkey, Europe, and the Middle East, and they have supporters throughout Europe and that part of the world. They have no known connection to the United States.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK): There have been multiple "Ku Klux Klans," all supporting the notion of white supremacy. Klan members, and some outsiders, divide the history of the Klan into five eras (the final three are post-World War II), so one may often find references to the Klan as the "Fifth Era Klan." Today there is no one monolithic "Klan" but rather a large collection of various small, independent groups using variants of the Klan name. Many Klan members have embraced the beliefs of Christian Identity.
Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (Army of the Righteous): This Pakistani- based religious organization is an anti-U.S. missionary organization and has targeted Indian troops and others in the Kashmir region. They have been responsible for a number of terrorist attacks against Indian security forces and the December 2001 attack on the Indian parliament building. A senior al Qaeda lieutenant was arrested at one of their safe houses, indicating that some other members may be facilitating the movement of al Qaeda throughout Pakistan. Most of their operations take place in Pakistan, and they have support in that part of the world, including in Chechnya. They have no known connection to the United States.
Lashkar-i-Jhangvi (Army of Jhangvi): This is the militant offshoot of a Sunni group that specializes in armed attacks and bombings. Some Pakistani authorities publicly named them as being responsible for the kidnapping and murder of U.S. journalist Daniel Pearl. The Pakistanis also believed they were responsible for bombings against Christian churches and a mosque in Pakistan in 2003. Most of their support and operations are in Pakistan and India. They have no known connection to the United States.
Law Enforcement Intelligence (LEI): The end product (output) of an analytic process that collects and assesses information about crimes and/or criminal enterprises with the purpose of making judgments and inferences about community conditions, potential problems, and criminal activity with the intent to pursue criminal prosecution or project crime trends.
Leaderless Resistance: Former Ku Klux Klan and Aryan Nations leader Louis Beam popularized the concept for right-wing zealots in a February 1992 essay that called for the formation of independent cells (or individual action) unconnected to any larger group and without a pyramidal leadership structure.
Liberation: A term used by animal rights extremists when they free animals that are raised for fur or other by-products used in medical or other research. Targets for "liberation" are frequently fur farms and university and corporate laboratories.
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE): This group, also known as the Tamil Tigers, was founded in 1976 and is the most powerful Tamil group in Sri Lanka. It has used terrorist tactics for over 20 years; however, it is currently observing a cease-fire with the government of Sri Lanka. Mostly notorious for having a cadre of suicide bombers, including women, they have committed a number of political assassinations and have a hard core of more than 6,000 trained fighters. Although they have not operated outside their region, they have large communities in North America, Europe, and Asia from which they obtain funds and supplies for their fighters in Sri Lanka.
Liberty Lobby: An anti-Semitic group founded by Willis Carto in 1957 in Washington, DC, and controlled by Carto ever since. For years it also sponsored radio broadcasts. The Liberty Lobby has been one of the strongest backers of Holocaust Revisionism. This group also publishes the Barnes Review, a revisionist publication named after the deceased revisionist, Henry Elmer Barnes, considered to be the father of Holocaust Revisionism. In the past, Liberty Lobby published The Spotlight, and its publishers are now responsible for the publication known as American Free Press, available online and in print.
Lone Wolf: In white-supremacist parlance, someone who operates alone, without any public associations with other individuals or groups.
Luddites: A movement in the early nineteenth century in England that opposed the Industrial Revolution; more recently used to describe people who fear modern technology and the effects that it is having on the world's economy and environment.
Malicious Software: Self-contained yet interactive computer programs that, when introduced into a computer, can cause loss of memory or data or cause erroneous instructions to be given in a computer program.
Media Bypass: Available in print or via the Internet, Media Bypass is a magazine published in Evansville, Indiana, covering material of particular interest to those involved in the "patriot" movement.
Militia Movement: An extremist movement based on armed, paramilitary groups that emerged in the mid-1990s using the rationalization that the United States' people needed armed force to help defend themselves against an increasingly tyrannical government that was becoming the puppet of the "New World Order."
Militia of Montana (MOM): The Militia of Montana, its presence on the far right admittedly eroded, currently describes itself as having no leadership officials or membership. Eligibility is open to citizens of any state, says cofounder John Trochmann. Despite a decline in membership, however, the militia's newsletter continues to enjoy subscribers and the group still attracts audiences at "patriot" events, indicating an ongoing interest in its agenda.
Monetary Realist: A term used to describe someone who adheres to the view that only gold and silver are lawful money. This assertion has repeatedly been struck down by the courts.
Monkey Wrench Gang: A 1975 book written by Edward Abbey that has had a great influence on present-day environmental activists. The book involves a plot to blow up the Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River.
Monkey Wrenching: A term used by environmental extremists to describe the actions they take against targets they believe are harming the environment. The actions can involve a myriad of tactics, including anything from damaging logging equipment to opening gates to allow animals to wander freely. Monkey wrenching concentrates on damaging property, not injuring people.
Moors: A term used to describe a variety of different groups, ranging in size from very small to the tens of thousands, who espouse theories suggesting a variety of mythical doctrines, such as that African Americans are actually indigenous peoples (of North America) or are descendants of the lost city of Atlantis. These groups, whose members are African American, have tended to appropriate sovereign citizen rhetoric and tactics for their own purposes and often have close contacts with white sovereign citizen groups.
Mud People: A term used to refer to the non-Caucasian races of the earth by adherents of Christian Identity. According to Identity doctrine, Adam and Eve were not the first humans created by God; they were merely the first people created in God's image. There had been prior, inferior creations, the descendants of which are the nonwhite people of the earth. Occasionally, non-Identity white supremacists will also use this term.
Mujahedin-e-Khalq Organization (MEK): The MEK philosophy mixes Marxism and Islam. The organization was expelled from Iran after the Islamic Revolution; however, their history is filled with anti-Western attacks, as well as those against the clerical régime in Iran. They seek the overthrow of the existing Iranian régime and replacement with their own leadership. The MEK conducted near-simultaneous attacks on Iranian embassies in 13 countries in the late 1990s. The MEK has bases in Iraq and a number of supporters in the United States. Its members conducted a terrorist attack in the United States in 1992, a takeover of a building in New York. In 2001, three members of the MEK were arrested in Los Angeles for providing material support to the MEK in the raising of funds.
Narcoterrorism: A nebulous term referring to the use of extreme force and violence by narcotic producers/distributors and intended to pressure a government to allow their operations to continue or to convince a government to rescind actions undertaken to combat drug trafficking.
National Alliance: An organization founded in 1974 by the late Dr. William Pierce; the National Alliance is a spin-off of the National Youth Alliance. It was created to combat violent anti- Vietnam protesters who Pierce believed were trying to destroy white society. Originally based in Washington, DC, Pierce moved the National Alliance in 1985 to Hillsboro, West Virginia. The group stresses the importance of the Aryan race (white) and teaches that white people have an obligation to better their race and ensure its survival.
National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP): A formal intelligence sharing initiative, supported by the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, that securely links local, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies, facilitating the exchange of critical intelligence information. The plan contains model policies and standards and is a blueprint for law enforcement administrators to follow when enhancing or building an intelligence function. It describes a nationwide communications capability that will link all levels of law enforcement personnel, including officers on the street, intelligence analysts, unit commanders, and police executives.
National Liberation Army of Colombia (ELN): This Marxist- Leninist insurgent group was formed in 1965 and is attempting to replace the government of Colombia with a Marxist government. They have engaged in kidnappings, hijackings, bombings, and extortion. They annually conduct hundreds of kidnappings for ransom in order to fund their activities. They have conducted attacks against the energy infrastructure in Colombia and have kidnapped foreign nationals. They have received some safe haven from Cuba and Venezuela. They also deal with narcotics traffickers but have no known connection to the United States.
National Organization for the Repeal of the Federal Reserve Act and the Internal Revenue Code (NORFED): This group was started by Media Bypass founder Jim Thomas and Royal Hawaiian Mint owner Bernard von NotHouse, whose main purpose is marketing American Liberty Currency-silver certificates allegedly backed up by real silver in a warehouse in Hayden Lake, Idaho. One can exchange Federal Reserve Notes for ALC certificates at a 1:1 ratio. Started in October 1988, this concept (fueled by "patriot" distrust of paper money) has been embraced by a variety of patriot groups and individuals who are operating "redemption centers" for the NORFED notes.
National Security Intelligence: The collection and analysis of information concerned with the relationship and homeostasis of the United States with foreign powers, organizations, and persons with regard to political and economic factors, as well as the maintenance of the United States' sovereign principles.
National Socialist White People's Party: A neo-Nazi group based in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, headed by Harold Covington, a.k.a. Winston Smith. It claims to be the descendant of the American Nazi Party, the country's first neo-Nazi party, started by George Lincoln Rockwell (since assassinated). It is one of the most openly Hitlerian neo-Nazi groups, not Christian Identity in nature. The National Socialist White People's Party's Web site can be accessed through http://www.americannaziparty.com.
National Vanguard: The news site and official magazine of the National Alliance. The first issue of the magazine was released in April 1978 as a successor to the group's previous magazine, Attack. National Vanguard can be found online at http://www.nationalvanguard.org.
Nationalist: Since the 1930s, a synonym or code word for American Nazis or groups, parties, or publications with Nazi or white-supremacist leanings (examples: The Nationalist Times, The Nationalist Party, etc.).
Nationalist Observer, The: A white-supremacist publisher/ distributor that was run by Alex Curtis and published The Nationalist Observer magazine and sold white-supremacist books, videos, and audiotapes. The thrust of The Nationalist Observer philosophy was the protection of the white race, believing that there should be "nothing short of the full geographic separation of the races, with strong physical barriers between them." Curtis pled guilty on March 16, 2001, in federal court to civil rights violations in San Diego, California, and was sentenced to three years in prison. As part of his agreement, Curtis formally apologized to four of his victims. The Nationalist Observer is no longer active.
Neo-Confederate: A term generally used to describe either actual modern Southern secessionists or other forms of Southern nationalists. Typically, neo-Confederate groups wish to re-form the Confederate States of America or establish a modern equivalent. See also Neo-Secessionists.
Neo-Nazis: Groups or individuals that adopt Nazi regalia and symbols and venerate Hitler and the Nazis.
Neo-Secessionists: Individuals or groups who want specific geographic regions to break away from the United States. Alaska, Hawaii, and Texas all have neo-secessionist groups based on a sovereign citizen ideology. Another, perhaps larger, set of neo-secessionists are neo-Confederates, who want the South to break away from the United States and form a nation based on "Anglo-Celtic" (meaning "white") dominance.
New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense: Established by Khallid Adbul Muhammad around 1996 to resurrect the original Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, the New Panthers claim to have 80 chapters across the country, including in the areas of New York, Houston, and Washington, DC. They have shown their resolve by marching with weapons in plain sight in Jasper, Texas (following the dragging death of James Byrd, Jr., in 1998) and at the Texas State Prison in Huntsville, Texas, in 2000 to protest the impending execution of a black man. They continue to organize demonstrations that have been criticized for their racial and anti-Semitic tone.
New Order, The: A white-supremacist group from southern Illinois near St. Louis, Missouri, that conspired to commit violent attacks during 1997 and 1998. The leading members of the group-Dennis Michael McGiffen, Wallace Scott Wecherding, and Ralph P. Bock-were all convicted of assorted weapons charges and sentenced to federal prison terms.
New World Order: A term used by conspiracy theorists to refer to a global conspiracy designed to implement worldwide socialism.
Nighttime Gardening: A term used by anarchists and anti- genetic engineering extremists. Anarchists plant "community" food gardens in locations of public property or destroy sidewalks or parking lots to plant gardens. Antigenetics' actions include the destruction of genetically modified crops.
Nom de Guerre: French for "name of war," meaning a pseudonym adopted during a time of crisis. In sovereign citizen philosophy, any name that is entirely capitalized (such as might appear on a subpoena or other legal document) is a fictitious name and not a legitimate representation of that sovereign's name. Sovereign citizens claim that only people under "military jurisdiction" must respond to such a name. One court case that rejected this frivolous argument is United States v. Klimek, 952 F. Supp. 1100 (E.D. Pa. 1997).
Nondomestic Mail: One of a variety of phrases placed on envelopes by sovereign citizens who want to avoid admitting or agreeing to federal "jurisdiction" over them.
Nonresident Alien: A term that sovereign citizens often use to refer to themselves, indicating that they do not consider themselves citizens of the "United States." It is often used as a tax dodge; sovereign citizens claim that anyone not living in Washington, DC, or a federal territory or enclave is a "foreign person" and a "nonimmigrant, nonresident alien" according to the tax code.
Northwest Bastion: A term used to describe the area of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana (and sometimes Wyoming) by white supremacists who argue that it should be a basis for a white-separatist enclave.
Nuremberg Files: A Web site that listed the names of abortion doctors and other providers, referring to them as baby butchers. Many abortion supporters felt the list encouraged people to harm the listed individuals because the names of doctors who had been killed were reflected with a line drawn through their names.
Nuwabians: See Moors.
Oath of Office: An oath public officials take that "patriots" claim binds them to the patriots' view of duty. Perhaps the most common charge leveled by antigovernment extremists is that their public officials are violating oaths of office if they enforce an unpopular law, rule, or regulation.
Odinism: A set of religious beliefs centered around the ancient Norse gods. Odinism is a sect with some popularity among white supremacists who have rejected Christianity (as indeed some of the original Nazis, particularly the SS, did). It appeals to them because it is a religion practiced by "white" people before the coming of Christ, thus allowing them to avoid all of the sticky issues surrounding Judaism and the Bible. A number of members of The Silent Brotherhood, including Robert Mathews and David Lane, professed to be Odinists.
Oi: A form of music favored by skinheads. "Oi" is a cockney slang term for "Hey!" One aficionado describes it as "a melodic, old-school type of punk." It is a working-class version of punk dating back to the late 1970s, popularized originally by bands like The Cockney Rejects, Sham69, Hammersmith Gorillas, and Chelsea. Like the skinhead movement itself, Oi eventually crossed the Atlantic and American Oi bands formed, including the Anti-Heroes, Niblick Henbane, and The Wretched Ones.
Oklahoma City Bombing (OKC Bombing): The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 19, 1995, which left 168 dead and hundreds wounded-the single most deadly act of domestic terrorism in U.S. history. The bombing was committed by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, apparently in retaliation for the assault on the Branch Davidian compound at Waco, Texas, that occurred two years before.
One Seed/Two Seed: A doctrinal split in the Christian Identity sect. Two Seed advocates claim that Jews are descended from Satan, or "the serpent," who physically seduced Eve. From their liaison came Cain, claimed by Two Seed advocates to be the person from whom the Jews are descended. One Seed advocates tend to be no less racist but do not accept the notion that Jews are the offspring of Satan.
One-World Government: The concept that there will ultimately be a single governing body that will control the world. Some right-wing extremists fear this occurring, believing that white people will be in the minority, with Jewish people ultimately controlling the world.
Open Source Information or Intelligence: Individual data, records, reports, and assessments that may shed light on an investigatory target or event and do not require any legal process or any type of clandestine collection techniques for a law enforcement agency to obtain. Such information is obtained through means that meet copyright and commercial requirements of vendors, as well as being free of legal restrictions to access by anyone who seeks that information.
Operation Bite Back: An ALF initiative started in the early 1990s to stop fur farming through the use of attacks against the fur industry. The first part of the project was aimed at fur research facilities. The second part, targeting fur farms, began in 1995. "Operation Vampire Killer 2000": A pamphlet published by Jack McLamb's "patriot" group, Police Against the New World Order. Originally printed in 1992, it was revised and reprinted in 1996. It is, according to its subtitle, an "American Police/Military Action Plan for Stopping the Program for World Government Rule," in line with McLamb's goal of recruiting police officers and active duty military members into the "patriot" movement. The gist of his argument is that police officers should not enforce the laws. McLamb writes, "IF OFFICERS DON'T ENFORCE TREASON, IT WON'T GET ENFORCED."
Our One Supreme Court: A term frequently used to describe a common law court; i.e., the "Our One Supreme Court" of El Paso County. Although, in practice, there is often not more than one "Our One Supreme Court" per state or region, according to sovereign citizen theory, there should be an "Our One Supreme Court" in every county. The peculiar name comes from the sovereign citizen reading of the Constitution; in particular, the beginning of Article III, Section 1: "The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." According to sovereign citizens, this means that there shall be "One Supreme Court" in each county, since the county is the highest level of government.
Palestine Liberation Front (PLF): This group broke away from the PFLP-GC in the late 1970s and was led by Abu Abbas. Their most famous attack was against the Achille Lauro in 1985, when a U.S. citizen, Leon Klinghofer, was killed. The group has been based in Iraq since 1990, but Abbas was arrested by coalition forces in 2003 and died of natural causes in March 2004 while in custody. They have no known connection to the United States.
Panzerfaust: Self-described as a Minnesota-based music label that specializes in the production and distribution of radical prowhite rock music. The name is derived from a World War II German handheld antitank weapon meaning "armored fist." The firm uses the address Post Office Box 188, Newport, Minnesota 55055. Their Web site address is http://www.panzerfaust.com.
Patriot Movement: The "patriot" movement is a general term used by its members to describe the collective movements and individuals on the extreme right wing. In one form or another, this practice dates back many decades; in the 1930s, many on the far right referred to themselves as "superpatriots." In the 1960s and 1970s, it was common to refer to the "Christian Patriot" movement, but this term is less common now than then. Among the types of individuals that can be found within the "patriot" movement are white supremacists, sovereign citizens, tax protesters, militia members, and sometimes antiabortion or anti-environmental groups.
Patriots for Profit: A term used to describe those individuals in the "patriot" movement who perpetrate scams and frauds against other people, usually fellow members of the movement. It also refers to people who attempt to make money by selling various products and "kits" to members of the movement. By far the most numerous of the "patriots for profit" are the people who cater to would-be tax protesters.
Phineas Priesthood: An extremist "group" committed to violent action to stop race-mixing and abortions. The group was inspired by the book The Vigilantes of Christendom by Richard K. Hoskins, which describes the "history" of the Priesthood since its alleged beginnings with the biblical Phinehas. "As the Kamikaze is to the Japanese, as the Shi`ite is to Islam, as the Zionist is to the Jew," writes Hoskins, "so the Phineas Priest is to Christendom." In essence, the Priesthood is not an organized group, but rather a collection of those individuals who claim to be Phineas Priests. The number of people who have been so identified is extremely small: Paul Hill, the Spokane Bank Bandits, Walter Thody, possibly Byron de la Beckwith, and a few others.
Phone Waves: A tactic commonly used in support of arrested militia members or other extremists. The goal of the tactic is to get so many supporters to phone the police station, sheriff's office, or jail where the arrested suspect is, as well as related people such as judges, prosecutors, etc., that the authorities will find themselves completely tied up, and possibly intimidated, by the tactic. Usually the "word" for phone waves is sent out via shortwave radio or the Internet.
Pipe Bombs: The "weapon of choice" for many extremists. Small, easily made with common materials, hard to detect, and packing a potent antipersonnel punch, these illegal explosive devices have been found in great numbers among those right- wing extremists arrested on illegal weapons and explosives charges.
Pirate Radio: The operation of radio transmitters without a license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Although some of the most notable pirate stations, such as Free Radio Berkeley, have been primarily left-wing in orientation, a large number of pirate stations adhere to right- wing or antigovernment philosophies.
Pointer System/Index: A system that stores information designed to identify individuals, organizations, and/or crime methodologies with the purpose of linking law enforcement agencies that have similar investigative and/or intelligence interests in the entity defined by the system.
Pontifex Maximus (Supreme Leader): Ben Klassen used this term in leading the Church of the Creator. Matt Hale, who renamed the religion the World Church of the Creator (WCOTC) in 1995, used the Pontifex Maximus title when he led the group.
Poor Man's James Bond: Written by Kurt Saxon in 1972, this book provides instructions for making and using explosives and incendiaries. It proved quite popular among left-wing activists of the 1970s and 1980s and is still currently available.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP): This Marxist-Leninist group was founded in 1967 by Dr. George Habash and began a series of spectacular international terrorist attacks, including airplane hijackings. PFLP committed numerous international terrorist attacks in the 1970s, including attacks against Israeli and moderate Arab targets. In 2001, PFLP killed the Israeli tourism minister and has generally operated in the Middle East over the last 20 years. They received some safe haven and logistical support from Syria. There have been some PFLP members in the United States in the past, particularly in Los Angeles and Cleveland.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC): This group split from the PFLP in 1968 and is led by Ahmed Jibril. They carried out dozens of attacks in Europe and the Middle East during the 1980s, including several against the United States military in Germany. They have conducted cross-border attacks in Israel using hot-air balloons and motorized hang gliders. The primary focus today is in southern Lebanon, as well as small-scale attacks within Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza. They are currently headquartered in Damascus, Syria, but they have supporters throughout the world.
Populist Party: An extremist political party started in 1984 and largely sponsored by the Liberty Lobby. In 1984, it ran Olympic athlete Bob Richards for President; in 1988, former Nazi and Klansman David Duke was the candidate for the top post; and in 1992, the candidate was Bo Gritz.
Pre-Adamic: Existing before Adam and Eve. This term is generally used by Christian Identity adherents to refer to the peoples they claim were created by God before Adam and Eve; i.e., the "mud people."
Preamble Citizen: A term sometimes used by sovereign citizens to refer to themselves. Usually it is referred to in contrast to "Fourteenth Amendment Citizens."
Precious Metal Dealers: Dealers in gold and silver who form perhaps the most significant source of financial support for the "patriot" movement. Gold and silver dealers such as Viking International, Discount Gold and Silver Trading Company, and others sponsor shortwave radio programs whose hosts urge people to put all their money into gold and silver so they can survive the "coming collapse." These cynical dealers will accept Federal Reserve Notes in exchange for precious metals.
Preparedness Expos: Essentially, traveling trade fairs designed to appeal to the "patriot" market.
Prime Bank Scams: Investment scams that promise high rates of return on supposedly secure "prime bank" notes, which are asserted to be secret but lucrative forms of investment used by the monied elite. The scam seems to have originated in Europe and targeted mostly wealthy individuals; however, it has been used in the United States, including by some groups and individuals who have targeted the "patriot" movement. See also Patriots for Profit.
Primitivist: An anarchist theory that after illegitimate government is toppled, people will self-organize in a tribal arrangement. One of the most notorious primitivist proponents is author John Zerzan, who has written numerous books on the topic.
Prisoner of War (POW): A term often used by terrorists to describe themselves while incarcerated. Many terrorists believe that by declaring themselves POWs, they should enjoy certain benefits not accorded to normal criminals.
Pro Se Litigation: Litigation in which one represents oneself.
Profit Prevention: A term used by ALF to refer to actions against a business enterprise to prevent it from earning money. Tactics vary and have included breaking and etching windows, gluing door locks, and disabling delivery vehicles.
Protocols of the Elders of Zion: The most notorious anti- Semitic tract in the world today. The Protocols purport to be a secret Jewish plan for world domination. Actually, the Protocols are a notorious forgery, created in the late nineteenth century by the secret police of Tsarist Russia.
Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA): Founded in 1969, PIRA is the primary terrorist group involved in attempting to establish a single Irish nation by joining the six northern Irish counties that now comprise Protestant-controlled Northern Ireland with the Catholic-controlled Republic of Ireland. PIRA has sought to rid all of Ireland of British control and influence.
Pure Trusts: Entities set up by "patriots" and others, generally in an attempt to avoid income or other taxes; also referred to as "common law trusts," "pure contractual trusts," and a variety of other terms.
Purging (Records): The removal and/or destruction of records because they are deemed to be of no further value or further access to the records would serve no legitimate government interest.
Quiet Title: A court action to settle or establish the title to a particular property, especially when there are claims to the title or the title is clouded. Generally speaking, this is what one must do when subjected to a bogus lien. Some sovereign citizens also file documents they call "Quiet Titles" to proclaim their disassociation with the government, often accompanying them with demands that their driver's license and motor vehicle records be destroyed. See also Asseveration.
Quitclaim Deed: A legal document designed to pass titles or interest to real property from one individual to another, as in an amicable divorce, when one party relinquishes title of a house to the ex-partner. This is different from a warranty deed, in which the grantor expressly claims good title and the ability to convey it to the grantee. Thus, if X and Y wanted to resolve a dispute over land, X might (in return for payment) "quitclaim" the property to Y, thus avoiding the need for X to claim that he had good title in the first place or for Y to admit that fact. "Patriots" and con artists have developed a tactic of using quitclaim deeds to cloud title to property-often to avoid foreclosure for back taxes.
RAcial HOly WAr (RAHOWA): A term used by white supremacists to indicate their racial struggle. It is often used by skinheads and has even come to be the name of a popular band on the white-supremacist record label Resistance Records.
Real IRA (RIRA): This political pressure group is dedicated to removing British soldiers from Northern Ireland and uniting Ireland. They have committed bombings, assassinations, and robberies, and many members are Provisional IRA members who left that organization, following the Provisional cease- fire, and bring to this group a wealth of experience in terrorist tactics and bomb making. Their targets have included civilians, the British military, police in Northern Ireland, and Northern Ireland Protestant communities. Since October 1999, they have committed more than 80 terrorist attacks. In 2003, law enforcement interdicted two large-scale vehicle bombs planted by the group. Their area of operation has generally been in the United Kingdom, but they receive funds from sympathizers in the United States, as well as the purchase of weapons from U.S. gun dealers.
Redemption: A sovereign citizen tactic that gained great popularity in 1999. It is often called "Accept for Value" as well. Apparently thought up by Roger Elvick, who had created similar schemes in the 1980s, and popularized by supporters in Oregon, Texas, Ohio, and elsewhere, it was active in almost every state by the autumn of 1999. The rationale behind "redemption" is that when the U.S. government went off the gold standard in 1933, it needed to find a new way to pay off its international debt, so it somehow monetized the physical energy output of the people of the United States. Thus, when someone is born and his or her birth certificate is filed, it is registered as a security-it is, in fact, collateral against the international debt. Redemption advocates claim that fictitious entities called "straw men" are created to represent this energy output, one for every person in the country. They claim that by filing certain UCC 1 and UCC 3 documents with the Secretary of State's office, one can "redeem" or gain control of one's straw man and use this to create a fictitious account with the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury. One can then create and pass "sight drafts," which are essentially bogus checks, to pay off one's debts and liabilities.
Refused for Cause Without Dishonor: A term used by sovereign citizens, apparently stemming from UCC 3-501, when refusing to accept or comply with legal or governmental documents. A longer version of the statement would be as follows: "Your items are refused for cause without dishonor and without recourse to me and returned herewith because they are irregular, unauthorized, incomplete, and void process." Sometimes other UCC sections are cited instead of 3-501.
Regional Information Sharing Systems® (RISS): The RISS Program consists of six regional centers that state and local law enforcement agencies can become members of to share intelligence information and have a clearinghouse for information and resources for targeted crimes.
Regional Intelligence Centers: Multijurisdictional centers cooperatively developed within a logical geographical area that coordinate federal, state, and local law enforcement information with other information sources to track and assess criminal and terrorist threats that are operating in or interacting with the region.
Republic of Texas (ROT): A sovereign citizen neo-secessionist group based on the notion that Texas was never legally annexed by the United States and is, therefore, an independent nation.
Requirements (Intelligence): The types of intelligence operational law enforcement elements need from the intelligence function within an agency or other intelligence- producing organizations in order for law enforcement officers to maximize protection and preventive efforts and to identify and arrest persons who are criminally liable.
Resistance: A National Alliance publication associated with its Resistance Records subsidiary. Edited by Erich Gliebe, chairman of the National Alliance, the publication promotes itself as being the "premier magazine for white power music. Every issue includes in-depth interviews, thought-provoking articles, and reviews of the latest white power music releases."
Resistance (Passive and Active): The term "resistance" is a term used to describe civil disobedience, knowingly breaking the law as a form of protest. Active resistance is any aggressive action. Passive resistance occurs when an activist fails to comply with a lawful order of police but otherwise does not act proactively.
Resistance Records: A firm owned and operated by the National Alliance, originating in Detroit, Michigan, and founded by George Burdi in 1993. After several ownership arrangements, the company came to William Pierce and the National Alliance in 1999. According to National Alliance literature, Resistance Records promotes itself as "the largest producers and distributors of white power music in the world." Resistance Records stocks around 250 titles and maintains an inventory of around 80,000 compact discs. Resistance Records also distributes a magazine, Resistance, which promotes its white power music. Resistance Records is available online at http://www.resistance.com. The published address for Resistance Records is Post Office Box 67, Hillsboro, West Virginia 24946. See also National Alliance; Resistance.
Restoring the Government/Constitution: One of the prime goals of many members of the "patriot" movement, who claim they are not trying to overthrow the government but rather want to "restore" the government to its status before it started "ignoring" the Constitution. Patriots claim that most actions of the U.S. government are unconstitutional and illegal.
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC): This organization was established in Colombia in 1964 and has grown into the largest and most capable and best-equipped Marxist insurgency group in the world. It is organized along military lines and has conducted several high-profile terrorist attacks, including a February 2003 attack against a Bogotá nightclub that killed more than 30 people. They have committed bombings, murder, mortar attacks, narcotrafficking, kidnapping, and extortion against Colombian military, government, and economic targets. Foreign citizens have often been targets of kidnapping for ransom. They have well-documented ties to a full range of narcotics trafficking organizations and have been involved in taxation, cultivation, and distribution of narcotics. Most of the areas of operation have been in Colombia, but they also exist in neighboring countries. They have no known connection to the United States.
Revolutionary Nuclei (RN): This leftist group is active in Greece and is believed to be the successor to or offshoot of another Greek terrorist group that has not been active since 1995. This group has claimed responsibility for two dozen arson attacks and several low-level bombings targeting a range of Greek and European targets in Greece. They normally have called to warn of impending attacks and have targeted property rather than individuals. Little is known about this group.
Revolutionary Organization 17 November: This radical leftist group was established in the mid-1970s and was anti-Greek, anti-U.S., anti-Turkey, and anti-NATO and demanded the ouster of U.S. bases from Greece. They initially conducted assassinations and added bombings to their repertoire in the 1980s. They generally supported themselves through bank robberies, but a June 2002 bombing attempt and excellent law enforcement work led to the first-ever arrest in this group. Eventually, 15 members of the group were convicted. All their operations have taken place in Greece.
Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C): This group, also known as Dev Sol, is a Marxist-Leninist group in Turkey. It is anti-Turkish establishment and has committed attacks against the U.S. military and diplomatic facilities. Most of its operations have been within the country of Turkey, primarily in Istanbul, but they do raise funds throughout Europe.
Ricin: A protein extracted from the common castor bean. Because of its high toxicity, many authorities fear its use in biological warfare.
Right to Travel: An absolute right that "patriot" movement members, especially sovereign citizens, claim that they have. They assert that they should be able to travel anywhere, at any time, and in any way, completely unfettered by any rules, licenses, restrictions, or regulations, including traffic laws, driver's licenses and vehicle registrations, tags, and plates. Many claim that only commercial vehicles can be regulated by the government but that private individuals can travel completely freely; others simply claim that the Bible gives them the right to travel freely.
Rooftop Occupation: Some activists occupy a building rooftop with no title or rights of access to that space. Activists typically use this tactic to control a physically high vantage point for communicating the message of their social philosophy. They may do so by initiating such actions as hanging banners, creating street parties, or beginning hunger strikes.
Salafist Group for Call and Combat: This Algerian group may have grown out of the GIA but has eclipsed them since 1998 in terms of operational activities. They have generally conducted operations aimed at government and military targets, although civilians have been killed. They conducted a number of kidnappings in 2003 and collected ransom after freeing 31 European tourists. They have an affiliation, at least spiritually, with al Qaeda. Most other operations have been in Algeria and northern Africa, but they are supported by a number of Algerian expatriates who live abroad.
Sarin Gas: Sarin, a colorless and odorless nerve gas, has a lethal dose of 0.5 milligrams for an adult. It is 26 times more deadly than cyanide gas and 20 times more lethal than potassium cyanide. The vapor is slightly heavier than air, so it hovers close to the ground. On March 20, 1995, the Aum Shinri Kyo cult released sarin into the Tokyo subway system, killing 12 and making thousands sick.
Scriptures for America (SFA): The "outreach ministry" for the La Porte, Colorado, Church of Christ, the Christian Identity Church run by Pete Peters, one of the most prominent leaders of the white-supremacy movement. SFA produces tapes, videotapes, books, pamphlets, and Peters' shortwave radio show. SFA is one of the more virulently anti-Semitic Identity churches. Its "tape ministry" (in which SFA sends subscribers cassette tapes of sermons) is one of the primary ways in which many scattered believers receive the "Identity" message, because actual Identity churches are so few and far between. SFA maintains a Web site at http://www.scripturesforamerica.org.
Sendero Luminoso: This group, known as the Shining Path, is based in Peru and is a Maoist group formed in the 1980s that became one of the most ruthless terrorist groups in the Western Hemisphere. Approximately 30,000 people have died since the Shining Path took up arms in 1980. They have recently been involved in narcotrafficking, as well as kidnapping for ransom. Their stated goal is to destroy existing Peruvian institutions and replace them with a communist peasant revolutionary régime. Most other activities have taken place within the country of Peru, and they have no known U.S. connection.
Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) Information: Information that has not been classified by a federal law enforcement agency which pertains to significant law enforcement cases under investigation and criminal intelligence reports that require dissemination criteria to only those persons necessary to further the investigation or to prevent a crime or terrorist act.
Separatists: A term used to describe those white supremacists who wish to live apart from other races. Often it is used by supremacists in an attempt to deny that they are racists by claiming that they do not feel superior to other races, they just do not want to live with them. The ultimate separatist idea is the plan for creating a Northwest Bastion, a homeland for white people in the Pacific Northwest.
Sharia (Shariah, Shari`ah): Islamic law, based on the Koran (Allah's revelation) and on the traditions (hadiths) of the Prophet Mohammed, ijma (consensus decision by the Muslim authorities), and Qiyas (reasoning by analogy); the way or the divine path of duty, both ritual and general behavior for Muslims; informs the community about the nature of the faithfulness that God requires of them.
Sight Draft: Legitimately, a financial instrument that is similar to "cash on delivery"-the issuer of the sight draft must pay for items bought with it upon their arrival (i.e., payment "on sight" of the goods) or upon other conditions. However, bogus sight drafts have repeatedly been used by members of antigovernment extremist groups as fictitious financial instruments. They have also been utilized in connection with "Redemption" schemes. See also Redemption.
Silver and Gold: The only "biblical" and "constitutional" money, according to members of the "patriot" movement. Some members go so far as to refuse to use paper money, conducting all of their transactions in silver or gold or through barter.
Simulacrum Candidus (The White Emblem): The symbol of the World Church of the Creator. It consists of the letter "W" with a crown above it and a halo above the crown.
Sixteenth Amendment: Passed in 1913, this amendment to the United States Constitution permits the collection of an income tax. Followers of Posse Comitatus and other right-wing organizations refer to the year 1913 as the "year of the great betrayal." Many groups do not believe the amendment was properly ratified by enough states to be valid and, therefore, believe the federal income tax is "voluntary" and need not be paid.
Skinheads: A subculture in Western Europe and North America drawn largely from white, working-class youths. Skinhead culture emphasizes body distinction (shaved heads, tattoos), dress (suspenders, steel-toed boots, laces, jackets), music (ska and Oi), substance abuse (generally beer), and violence (from soccer hooliganism to hate crimes).
Smilies: Smilies have been used by activists during protests to resist police. A smilie consists of a chain with a lock at the end that is used to launch flaming rags, damage property, or intimidate or assault people. Skinheads have also been known to use smilies and claim that the name comes from the shape of the wound that the weapon leaves on a victim.
Sovereign Citizen: A term used to describe adherents to a philosophy derived from the group Posse Comitatus that posits that there are two types of citizens: "Fourteenth Amendment Citizens," who are subject to the laws and taxes of the federal and state governments, and sovereign citizens, who are subject only to "the common law." Sovereign citizens claim that they have absolute mastery over all their property (including freedom from taxes, regulations, ordinances, or zoning restrictions), that they essentially do not have to pay taxes (aside from tariffs and a few other insignificant taxes), that they are not citizens of the United States but are "nonresident aliens" with respect to that "illegal corporation," that the only court which has jurisdiction to try them for any matter is a common law court, and that they can never be arrested or tried for a crime or matter in which there is no complaining victim, as well as various other notions. Typical signs that someone is a sovereign citizen include the use of punctuation between their middle and last names (i.e., John Wayne; Doe); a refusal to have a social security card or any paper, license, or document related to automobile ownership or driving; a refusal to use zip codes; and the displaying on various items-from envelopes to paper money, to time cards, or to forms-of the phrase "UCC 1-207," or variants thereof. Sovereign citizens are often also known as state citizens, freemen, preamble citizens, common law citizens, or other appellations.
Special-Interest Terrorism: Extremism where a person commits or conspires to commit violent terrorist attacks for a very limited and special cause.
Specially Prepared Individuals for Key Events (SPIKE): A training course run by "patriot" leader Bo Gritz that purports to give people Green Beret training. According to the Web site http://www.bogritz.com, the course is now only available via videotape.
Spider Web Tattoo: With some white supremacists, particularly skinheads and men who are in prison, the wearing of a spider web tattoo on an elbow is a sign that the person has done or is doing prison time for committing a violent racial attack. However, the tattoo has gained in popularity and has been seen on people who may have no idea of its meaning.
Spiking: The placement of large nails or spikes, possibly even railroad spikes, into a tree as a means of preventing logging in a particular forest. The spike is often countersunk so it cannot be seen, and a saw blade in a sawmill that strikes the nail will be ruined at the cost of thousands of dollars. Since the blade shatters, mill workers fear sawing timber that has not been x-rayed or otherwise examined. Some spikings have used ceramic spikes to avoid detection by metal detectors, enhancing the chance that the spikes will only be found by loggers falling the trees or sawmills milling the logs into lumber.
Squat: A term referring to vacant property that has been taken over by anarchists. Since anarchists do not recognize the ownership of private property, they often will occupy vacant buildings. Squats may serve as temporary housing, a gathering place, or a convergence center. It is common for squats to be rigged with booby traps to injure police officers who may enter the premises.
Squatting: Squatting is the collective occupation of an unoccupied building or land area to which the actors have no legitimate title or right of access. Anarchists do not believe in land ownership or other property rights.
Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC): An organization leading the fight against Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), a British company that tests pharmaceuticals on animals. This campaign has developed the trademark of targeting businesses that are related to HLS, not just HLS itself. This focus began against financial institutions in England and was successful in eliminating funding for HLS in short order. After HLS moved to the United States, SHAC was formed to carry on the campaign. Targets include financial institutions, stockbrokers, market makers, janitorial services, insurance companies, and subsidiary companies. Another trademark of SHAC is the focusing of attacks on humans rather than facilities. Arsons, bombings, and physical assaults have been common in England, but as of the end of 2004, the actions have been lower-key, focusing on home protests, vandalism to private homes and vehicles, office occupations, and intimidation of employees.
Straightedge: A youth subculture that emphasizes abstinence from drugs, alcohol, and premarital sex and supports causes such as animal rights and vegetarianism. Its roots go back into the early 1980s. As with any youth culture, music plays an important role, especially variants of punk and hardcore. Straightedgers are also often intolerant or even violent and have attacked individuals, as well as businesses such as McDonalds. Those willing to commit violent acts are often called "hate edgers." The straightedge movement contains a white-supremacist component as well, generally through white- power skinheads who are also straightedgers. As with the skinhead movement itself, most straightedgers are not racist. The most common symbol for the straightedge movement is an "X" straddled by a smaller "s" and "e": sXe.
Strategic Intelligence: An assessment of targeted crime patterns, crime trends, criminal organizations, and/or unlawful commodity transactions for purposes of planning, decision making, and resource allocation; the focused examination of unique, pervasive, and/or complex crime problems.
Strawman (Straw Man): A term used by advocates of the "Redemption" tactic. According to "Redemption" rhetoric, every person has a fictitious doppelganger representing his or her "energy output" and controlled by the government.
Street Sign Stickers: Stickers placed on the back of street signs, largely by manufacturers but sometimes by construction crews, state transportation officials, and other sources. The stickers have become a major source of conspiracy theory for "patriots" who claim that the stickers are actually coded messages which either provide directions for invading United Nations troops to reach important facilities or which indicate routes by which sinister forces can round up citizens to put them in concentration camps.
Sui Juris: A term used to mean possessing full civil rights, competent to manage one's affairs. It is often used by sovereign citizens after their names in legal documents, as in "John Randy; Doe, sui juris."
Survivalists: The survivalist movement feared a coming collapse of civilization, generally as the result of nuclear war, and tried to prepare themselves to survive it. Survivalists typically stockpiled food, water, and weapons, especially the latter, and instructed themselves on topics ranging from first aid to childbirth to edible plants.
Syndicalist: An anarchist theory that after illegitimate government is toppled, people will self-organize around labor unions. This theory is most common in the industrialized northeastern United States, where the links between anarchists and labor unions are historical and strong.
Tactical Intelligence: Evaluated information on which immediate enforcement action can be based; intelligence activity focused specifically on developing an active case.
Tax-Protest Movement: A movement consisting of people who do not simply want to avoid paying taxes but generally claim they should not have to pay them. The right-wing movement started in the 1950s and 1960s and has concentrated on interpreting the Constitution, U.S. law, and the tax code, in particular, in such a way as to be able to claim that most people do not have to pay income taxes. The motivating force behind the right-wing tax-protest movement was to find loopholes, actual or manufactured, that would allow people to claim that they had no tax obligation.
Tear-Line Report: A report containing classified intelligence or information that is prepared in such a manner that data relating to intelligence sources and methods are easily removed from the report to protect sources and methods from disclosure. Typically, the information below the tear-line can be released as "Sensitive But Unclassified."
Third Agency Rule: An agreement wherein a source agency releases information under the condition that the receiving agency does not release the information to any other agency- that is, a "third agency."
Third Position: A political movement, present primarily in Europe but also in North America, that purports to be against both capitalism and communism. Although it claims to be opposed to both the right and left wings, its positions are mostly 83 extremely right-wing in nature. The Third Position is openly anti- Semitic in nature, taking a stand against "International Jewry"; it also opposes multiculturalism, third-world immigration to first- world countries, homosexuality, and much else. Some groups that monitor extremism in the United States are concerned that this movement is growing domestically, as well as overseas. It is sometimes called the "International Third Position," and its members are often called "Third Positionists."
Threat Assessment: An assessment of the criminal or terrorist presence within a jurisdiction integrated with an assessment of potential targets of that presence and a statement of probability that the criminal or terrorist will commit an unlawful act. The assessment focuses on the group's opportunity, capability, and willingness to fulfill the threat.
Threat Inventory: An information and intelligence-based survey within the region of a law enforcement agency to identify potential individuals or groups that pose criminal or terrorist threats without a judgment of the kind of threat they pose. The inventory is simply to determine their presence.
Threats, Duress, and Coercion (TDC): Sovereign citizens often place TDC after their signatures (on driver's licenses, for instance), after zip codes, and elsewhere. TDC indicates that the person using the phrase has just signed his or her name, used a zip code, or performed some other action under duress, not voluntarily, and has not obligated himself in any way.
Titles of Nobility: A term used by sovereign citizens to refer to lawyers.
Township Movement: A movement associated with the Posse Comitatus, which flourished in the 1980s. Led by tax protester Walter Mann, the last nonlawyer to be admitted to the bar in Utah, it advocated forming "townships" that would be independent communities (though not necessarily geographically distinct from other communities) with their own government (based on the common law) and their own militia.
Trilateral Commission: A group, along with the Bilderbergers and the Council on Foreign Relations, that is viewed by the "patriot" movement as being one of the major organizations seeking to implement the "New World Order." Formed in 1973 by David Rockefeller and Zbigniew Brzezinski, the Trilateral Commission consists of slightly over 300 members from Europe, Japan, and North America (the three main democratic-industrial regions of the world, thus the term "trilateral"). Members include prominent figures in the media, politics, business, and academia. Conspiracy theorists claim it is a group of elitists determined to promote a one-world government.
Trojan Horse: A computer program, command, or procedure that appears to be useful but contains a hidden code that, when invoked, performs some unwanted procedure; the program is written with the intent to be disruptive.
Trusts and Banks: Common "bogus" institutions often set up by "patriots for profit." "Common law trusts" and "common law banks" were frequently established by Posse groups in the 1970s and 1980s. They were designed either to hide wealth from the IRS, to rake in money from gullible "patriots," or both. A variation on the theme was the "barter bank," where individuals would deposit money that would be converted into gold and silver. Following this conversion, individuals would simply "barter" the gold and silver, making financial transactions without paper trails for the IRS or state tax agencies. The most well-known of these "institutions" was the National Commodity 85 and Barter Association, which operated a barter bank in Colorado in the 1980s (the Association still exists, though it no longer operates a barter bank). A new twist in the 1990s was the creation of "Internet Banks," where sovereign citizens advertise banking facilities on Web sites. See also Pure Trusts; Patriots for Profit.
Turner Diaries, The: A white-supremacist novel by the late National Alliance leader Dr. William Pierce, published in 1978 under the pseudonym of Andrew MacDonald. The novel details a revolution by whites against a tyrannical government that has instituted gun control, race mixing, and other "odious" measures.
UCC 1-207: A provision in the Uniform Commercial Code that reads as follows: "A party who with explicit reservation of rights performs or promises performance or assents to performance in a manner demanded or offered by the other party does not thereby prejudice the rights reserved. Such words as ‘without prejudice,' ‘under protest' or the like are sufficient." People who are sovereign citizens claim that if they use the term "UCC 1-207" or "Without Prejudice UCC 1-207" on driver's licenses, bank signature cards, contracts, paper money, and similar documents, they are reserving their common law rights and still operating under common law jurisdiction instead of agreeing to submit to federal or state jurisdiction.
Underground: Refers to a person functioning clandestinely. The vast majority of "underground" criminal extremists in the United States are not actually hidden from public view; instead, they live what appear to be relatively normal existences under either their true identities or under assumed names and legends. It is only when they participate in or take steps to commit a violent act that they make an effort to conceal their activities.
United Self-Defense Forces/Group of Colombia (AUC): The AUC is commonly referred to as the paramilitaries. The AUC is supported by the economic elites, drug traffickers, and local communities that lack effective government security. It allegedly protects its sponsors from insurgents. The AUC has assassinated suspected insurgent supporters of both FARC and the ELN, and it is believed that most of its operational costs are financed by drug trafficking. Most of the activities have 87 taken place in Colombia, and they have no known connection outside that country.
Unorganized Militia: A phrase commonly used to designate groups in the militia movement; for instance, "The Ohio Unorganized Militia." The term comes from a relic in the U.S. Code dealing with the militia and National Guard. The original militia law, passed in 1792, mandated universal compulsory militia service for all able-bodied white males ages 18 to 45. By the 1830s, however, a mass opposition movement to compulsory militia service arose, largely on socioeconomic grounds. State governments realized that they could not maintain compulsory militia systems but were constrained by the overarching federal law. To get around the 1792 law, states one by one gradually introduced systems that provided for two militias. One militia would be voluntary, small, compensated, and reasonably well-armed and trained. The other militia, for the majority of people who did not want to serve in the militia, would be a nominal manpower pool only, almost like draft eligibility, with no units, organization, officers, arms, training, musters, equipment, or other requirements. By the 1870s, the former type of militia had become known as the National Guard of the various states, while the latter type still operated under a variety of names but was coming to be known as the "unorganized militia." Eventually, the federal government formally recognized this pattern and, in 1903, acknowledged the National Guard and the unorganized militia. In the 1980s, Posse Comitatus leader William Potter Gale came across the obscure passage in U.S. Code that mentioned the unorganized militia and decided, incorrectly, that the "unorganized militia" was a legal armed force which was not controllable by the government and indeed was designed to protect the citizenry from a tyrannical government.
Unregistered Church Movement: A movement consisting mostly of small churches with no official ties to mainstream denominations whose members believe that the federal tax code is being used by the United States to control and manipulate churches.
Untax Package: A term used to refer to kits sold by professional tax protesters or would-be protesters, usually for a large fee, that sellers claim will allow buyers to stop paying income taxes altogether.
Vegan: Many animal rights activists prefer to call themselves vegans as opposed to omnivores who consume both meat and plant life. Vegans tend to believe that a diet without meat is better for the environment and reduces animal abuse. In addition to avoiding meat, vegans do not consume anything associated with animals, including milk and egg products. True vegans do not eat fish.
Vivisection: The cutting of living human or animal bodies. Typically, animal rights activists are referring to scientific laboratories, wherein research is conducted involving living tissue. Many college and company laboratories have been attacked over the past two decades by animal rights extremists angry over their use of living creatures for research.
Vulnerability Assessment: An assessment of possible criminal or terrorist group targets within a jurisdiction integrated with an assessment of the target's weaknesses, likelihood of being attacked, and ability to withstand an attack.
Washitaw Nation: A Louisiana-based sovereign citizen group with an unusual twist. The Washitaw Nation, led by the Empress of the Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah, a person named Verdiacee Tiari Washitaw Turner Goston El-Bey, claim that they are the descendants of the ancient Mound Builders and thus are the original sovereign citizens of the United States and own the Louisiana Purchase.
White Aryan Resistance (WAR): A prominent white- supremacist group headed by Californian Thomas Metzger, a television repairman and former Klan leader.
White Man's Bible: Written by Ben Klassen, this is an essential part of the foundation upon which the World Church of the Creator (Creativity Movement) is based. Essentially, it makes the case for white people's concern for their own well-being and advancement over the needs of all other races.
White Overalls: White overalls, also known as "tute bianche," is a movement consisting of anonymous groups that commit actions while dressed in white worker's overalls or chemical suits. Typically, they are present in large crowds and employ horizontal organization and decision making. During demonstrations, they carry pads, shields, helmets, and other protective gear.
White Power Music: White-supremacist rock music, usually derived from Oi or heavy metal and popular among young white supremacists in Europe, North America, and elsewhere.
White-Supremacy Movement: A movement consisting of right- wing extremist groups that have as the explicit centerpiece of their ideology the dominance of the white race.
Wigger: A term used by white supremacists to mean "white nigger" (i.e., a white person who does not subscribe to white- supremacy beliefs).
Wise Use: A term used to refer to a loose collection of antienvironment and property rights groups that oppose government regulation of natural resources and absolute property rights. Typical Wise Use positions include undoing restrictions on timber cutting on public lands and mining and drilling in national parks, the elimination of the Endangered Species Act and similar legislation designed to protect flora and fauna, an elimination or drastic reduction of most pollution controls, and government compensation of property owners for any restrictions on use of property (such as when a property owner is prevented from developing a wetland). Wise Use groups, which often receive their funding from timber and oil companies, regularly disguise themselves with names that sound proenvironment, such as the Environmental Conservation Organization and the Alliance for Environment and Resources.
Worms (Computer): Programs that use computer network connections to spread from system to system. Worms attack systems that are linked via communications lines, spreading viruses or Trojan Horses via interconnected media.
Wrist Rockets: Wrist rockets are high-powered slingshots that violent protesters have used to propel rocks, ball bearings, paint balls, and other objects. In addition, real and synthetic acid-filled eggs have been seized from radical anarchists.
Yahweh/Yeshua: Names referring to God and Jesus, respectively, often used by Christian Identity followers.
Zine: A zine is a written or cyber form of communication that tends to be a cross between a magazine, pamphlet, and leaflet and is used by anarchists and other leftist-oriented activists to express ideas and convey messages. In many respects, zines are amateurist magazines often informally produced for a limited audience.
Zionist: Generally speaking, a term used to refer to the Jewish movement earlier this century to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine or to refer to pro-Israeli groups or organizations today (i.e., Zionist Organization of America). The term is used by many white supremacists to refer to all or any Jews, often in reference to "Jewish conspiracies."
Zionist Occupied Government (ZOG): A term used by white supremacists and other anti-Semites in the "patriot" movement to refer to the federal government, which they claim is controlled or manipulated by international Jewish interests.
Abu Sayyaf Group Admiralty Court Affinity Group Agri-Terrorism Al Gama`a Islamiyya (Islamic Group) (IG) Al Qaeda (Al Qa`ida) Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade Allodial Title American Liberty Currency (ALC) American Pistol and Rifle Association (APRA) American's Bulletin, The Ammonium Nitrate-Fuel Oil (ANFO) Anarchist Cookbook, The Anarchist Punks Anarchy Animal Liberation Brigade Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Animal Rights Militia (ARM) Ansar al-Islam Anthrax (Bacillus Anthracis) Antiabortion Movement Antiauthoritarian Anti-Defamation League (ADL) Antipatriarchy Anti-Shyster April 19 Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Army of God Article III Judge Aryan Aryan Brotherhood Aryan Nations (AN) Asbat al-Ansar Asseveration Aum Shinri Kyo (Aum Supreme Truth Cult)
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) Biblical Money Big Book of Mischief Bilderbergers (Bilderberg Group) Black Bloc Black Helicopters Bogus Churches Bogus Lien Bogus Money Order Bonehead Boot Party Bruder Schweigen Butyric Acid
Cells Christian Identity Christian Patriots Christian Reconstructionism Citizen's Arrest Warrant Citizens Grand Jury Citizens Militia Civil Rights Task Force (CRTF) Claiming Skin Collection (of Information) Commercial Affidavit Process Common Law Court Common Law Court/Sovereign Citizen Movement Communiqué Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (NPA) Compound Group Computer Virus Concentration Camps Constitution Party Constitution Rangers Constitutional Money Constitutionalists Constructive Treason Convergence Center Corporate States (Corporate United States) Corporation Soles Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) Counselor-at-Law Counterintelligence County Rule Movement Covenant Community Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord, The Cracker
Earth First Earth Liberation Front (ELF) Ecodefense Economic Sabotage Eco-Raiders Ecoterror Eighty-Eight (also 88 or Eight-Eight) Elohim City Elves Embassy of Heaven Enemy Agents Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy (EMETIC) Executive Orders
Fag Bashing False 1099s Fatah Fax Chain Federal Land Patent Field Intelligence Group (FIG) Final Nail Flag of Distress Flag of Peace Fourteen Words Fourteenth Amendment Citizen Fraudulent Deed Transfers Free Speech Freemen Freshcut Fringe on the Flag Frontline Information Service FSU (F**k Sh*t Up)
Hacker Hacktivism Hamas Hammerskins/Hammerskin Nation Harakat ul-Mujahidin for the Liberation of Palestine) Hezballah (Hezbollah, Hizballah, Party of God, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine) Holocaust Revisionists Homophobia Illuminati Information Information Sharing System Information Warfare Information/Intelligence Sharing Intelligence (Criminal) Intelligence Assessment Intelligence Bulletins Intelligence Community Intelligence Cycle Intelligence Estimate Intelligence Function Intelligence Gap Intelligence Information Reports (IIR) Intelligence Products Intelligence Records (Files) Intelligence Records Guidelines Intelligence-Led Policing International Jewish Banking Conspiracy Islamic Jihad Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (Islamic Party of Turkestan) Israel/Israelites
Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (Army of the Righteous) Lashkar-i-Jhangvi (Army of Jhangvi) Law Enforcement Intelligence (LEI) Leaderless Resistance Liberation Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Liberty Lobby Lone Wolf Luddites
Narcoterrorism National Alliance National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP) National Liberation Army of Colombia (ELN) National Organization for the Repeal of the Federal Reserve Act and the Internal Revenue Code (NORFED) National Security Intelligence National Socialist White People's Party National Vanguard Nationalist Nationalist Observer, The Neo-Confederate Neo-Nazis Neo-Secessionists New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense New Order, The New World Order Nighttime Gardening Nom de Guerre Nondomestic Mail Nonresident Alien Northwest Bastion Nuremberg Files Nuwabians
Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) Panzerfaust Patriot Movement Patriots for Profit Phineas Priesthood Phone Waves Pipe Bombs Pirate Radio Pointer System/Index Pontifex Maximus (Supreme Leader) Poor Man's James Bond Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC) Populist Party Pre-Adamic Preamble Citizen Precious Metal Dealers Preparedness Expos Prime Bank Scams Primitivist Prisoner of War (POW) Pro Se Litigation Profit Prevention Protocols of the Elders of Zion Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) Pure Trusts Purging (Records)
RAcial HOly WAr (RAHOWA) Real IRA (RIRA) Redemption Refused for Cause Without Dishonor Regional Information Sharing Systems® (RISS) Regional Intelligence Centers Republic of Texas (ROT) Requirements (Intelligence) Resistance Resistance (Passive and Active) Resistance Records Restoring the Government/Constitution Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Revolutionary Nuclei (RN) Revolutionary Organization 17 November Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C) Ricin Right to Travel Rooftop Occupation
Salafist Group for Call and Combat Sarin Gas Scriptures for America (SFA) Sendero Luminoso Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) Information Separatists Sharia (Shariah, Shari`ah) Sight Draft Silver and Gold Simulacrum Candidus (The White Emblem) Sixteenth Amendment Skinheads Smilies Sovereign Citizen Special-Interest Terrorism Specially Prepared Individuals for Key Events (SPIKE) Spider Web Tattoo Spiking Squat Squatting Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) Straightedge Strategic Intelligence Strawman (Straw Man) Street Sign Stickers Sui Juris Survivalists Syndicalist
Tactical Intelligence Tax-Protest Movement Tear-Line Report Third Agency Rule Third Position Threat Assessment Threat Inventory Threats, Duress, and Coercion (TDC) Titles of Nobility Township Movement Trilateral Commission Trojan Horse Trusts and Banks Turner Diaries, The